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Full text of "Indians at work"

WE12 






AT 
WORK 




Saduch The Totem Carver 



MAY 



<> «- <► 



333 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR * OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS -WASHINGTON, D.C. 



SADUCH. CHIEF OF THE HAIDAS OF ALASKA CARVES A TOTEM POLE 

AND TEACHES A LESSON 

In San Francisco for Indian Exhibit at Golden Gate Exposition, 
He Brings With Him the Philosophy of His People 



Quaint, kind people are the Alaskan Indians. They be- 
lieve in giving away what they own. In the country of the Haida 
tribe, centered chiefly on Prince of Wales Island, the man who gives 
away the most is the most highly respected by his fellows. The 
chief of the Haidas is John Wallace, called by his people, Saduch. 
He is one of the few surviving carvers of genuine totem poles. Sev- 
enty-nine years old, he is in San Francisco carving a totem pole at 
the Indian presentation of the Federal Government on Treasure Is- 
land. 

Walking down Market Street one day, Saduch met a blind 
man, old like himself, begging alms. He had never been told the 
story of the Samaritan of old. He had never before seen a beggar, 
let alone a blind one. There were none in Hydaburg, his village in 
the far North. Poor folks were given food and clothing by those 
who had more than they needed. Furthermore, there were frequent 
potlatches - literally, "give-away parties" to which hundreds were 
invited, enormous quantities of food were consumed, the host gave 
away practically all his fortune, and customarily a totem pole was 
carved which commemorated in red cedar the achievements of the 
host's family. 

Reaching into his pocket, Saduch said to the beggar, "I'm 
sorry, but I only have ten dollars. I will share that with you." 
He gave him five dollars. "But how do you know the beggar was not 
a fake?" Saduch was asked. "I do not know," he replied, "but ray 
Haida Gods know. They would forgive him sooner than me had I passed 
by him." 



INDIANS AT WORK 
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF MAY 1939 

Volume VI Number 9 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Washington Office Visitors 3 

Incorporated Indians Of Round Valley 
Manage Unique Market Place At San 
Francisco Clyde Hall $ 

Indian Service Officials Hold Conference 

At Denver, Colorado, April 3 to 7 ... Joseph. McCaskill 3 

Visitor At San Francisco Exposition To 
Urge That Indian Exhibit Be Made 
Permanent 11 

Indian Dancers Present Vivid And Beauti- 
ful Ceremonials In Nation' s Capital 13 

Indians Of Acoma Pueblo Use Cactus To 

Supplement Feed For Livestock 18 

CCC-ID Is Definitely A Field Program . . . Robert- J. Ballantyne 19 

Nimble Bighorn Sometimes Do Lose 

Their Balance 21 

Fish Control Program Announced For 
Preservation of Migratory Fish In 
Columbia River At Grand Coulee Dam 23 

Varied Material Available For Exhibits 25 

A Lawyer Looks At The American Indian, 

Past and Present Samuel J. Flickinger 26 

Indian Wonders If He Needs A Tail 

Light On His Horse 29 

Indians At Red Lake Meet Problems Of A 

Changing World Mary M. Kirkland and 

Clarence W. Ringey 31 

Paiute Legend 34 

Textbook For The Plains John Herrick 35 

Illinois Women's Club Advocates Nation- 
al Indian Day 39 

Correct Spelling Of "Navajo" 39 

The Flight Of The Thunderbird 40 

Excerpt From 1938 Annual Extension 

Report John Pop 41 

Prominent Kiov/a Indian Dies 42 

Ralph L. Whit comb, Indian Service Em- 
ployee, Die s 43 

Dr. Charles A. Eastman, Prominent Sioux, 

Dies 44 

Indian And White Population In Western 

Utah To Have A Public Health Nurse .. Ralph B. Snavely 45 

CCC-ID Reports 4-6 




AT WORK 

ANews Sh««t for INDIANS and the INDIAN SERVICE 

VOLUME VI • • MAY 1939 - - NUMBER 9 



We are reminded often these days that Indian problems and 
Indian progress in the United States, far from being only matters 
of local or even of purely national concern, are in fact world-wide 
in their implications. Daily we see the multiplying evidence that 
the re-animation of Indian life in the United States sends reper- 
cussions to the far places of the world and is in turn influenced 
by events abroad. 

No long interval passes in which the Indian country or the 
Indian Office at Washington are not visited by men and women eager 
to bring back to their foreign homes a knowledge of the things that 
Indians are doing for themselves in this country. And this gain is 
not at all unilateral, for Indians and Indian Service employees 
must inevitably find lessons and inspiration in the contact thus es- 
tablished with persons intimately concerned with problems of study 
or administration of native populations elsewhere. 

A recent visitor who came to study us, but who in doing 
his work has given stimulus and information of his own previous 
findings, is Dr. Grenfell Price, Master of St. Marks College, Uni- 
versity of Adelaide, Australia, and author of such books as "White 



Settlers in the x'ropics", "Foundation and Settlement of South Aus- 
tralia", "History and Problems of the Northern Territory" and con- 
tributor to the "Cambridge History of the British Einpire." 

Dr. Price, on his current trip to the United States, has 
visited Indian settlements in the Carson jurisdiction of Nevada 
and California, the Navajo-Hopi Area, the Mescalero Apache Reserva- 
tion and the Pueblos. His enthusiasm for the pioneering progress in 
Indian affairs helps us to remember that we are blazing a trail to- 
ward the improvement of democratic processes among minority groups 
in the world. 

Within the past month there arrived in Washington a group 
of students from Yale, men and women from several countries, who un- 
der the direction of Dr. Charles T. Loram, Head of the Institute of 
Race Relations, have made a fact-finding tour of certain Indian res- 
ervations, particularly the Navajo. Their observations, made orally 
to some Indian Office officials in a morning conference in Washing- 
ton, will be supplemented by written papers which will, we hope, 
come to us as a means of helping us to see ourselves as others see 
us. We insist that these people tell us their adverse as well as 
their favorable findings, and very often they comply. We need that 
sort of thing. 

Recently Luiz Simoes Lopes, chief of the civil service 
system of Brazil, spent days conferring with Indian Office officials 
in Washington and gathering written material for the information of 
himself and his colleagues at home. Brazil is deeply conscious of 
the problems of its native peoples. There has been a tentative sug- 
gestion that someone from the United States, well-informed in Indian 
matters, be sent to Brazil for an extended period, but this is in 
the early stages of incipiency. 

Meanwhile, John Joseph Mathews, member of the Osage Tribal 
Council, and an established author of books on Indian subjects, has 
received a Guggenheim fellowship award for a year's work in Mexico. 

Miss Mary Doherty, a citizen of the United States who has 
spent many years in Mexico and other Latin American countries, has, 
under a fellowship grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, commenced 
a year of constructive personal coordinative effort in our neighbor 
states to the south. 

Overshadowing all these, and indeed possibly transcending 
many other matters of great world import, is the approaching hemi- 
sphere Indian Congress at LaPaz, Bolivia, in August. Whatever links 



are there forged in the chain of Pan-American unity, one indi sput- 
able fact is already self-evident, namely the increasing realization 
that the twenty-five million Indians of the western world are close- 
ly united in race, in spirit and in culture. 

The day has long passed when Indian problems could be lo- 
calized at Anadarko, Sacramento, Window Rock or Cass Lake. Today we 
know we are part of an effort at racial and human betterment that 
reaches from the northernmost point of Alaska to Terra del Fuega, 
and possibly even further around the world. 



sfO ***~ 



£<j2~b-^ 



Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS 



Recent visitors to the Washington Office have included 
the following visiting delegations and visitors: Crow Agency (Mon- 
tana): George Hogan, William Wall, and Frank Takes The Guns. Fort 
Peck (Montana): James Archdale, Jim Black Dog, William Knorr, and 
George Washington. Fort Totten (Montana): Ignatius Court. Hopi 
(Arizona): Superintendent Seth Wilson, Byron Adams, Fred Lomivesa, 
Peter Navumsa, and Sam Shingoitown. Yakima (Washington): Superin- 
tendent Milton A. Johnson, William Adams, Phillip Olney, Charlie 
Sluskin, Frank Totus, and Thomas Yallup. 

Health Division : Dr. Marcus H. Flinter, Senior Physician, 
Consolidated Chippewa Agency, Minnesota; Dr. Leslie Foster, Dentist 
in Charge of Dental Education; Dr. Myron F. Sesit, Senior Phys- 
ician, Hopi Agency, Arizona; and Dr. W. S. Stevens, Medical Direc- 
tor, Florida, Kansas, North Carolina, Mississippi and Oklahoma Area, 

Education Division : Florence Holton, Associate Supervisor 
of Elementary Education, Oklahoma City; Kathryn Von Hinzman, Social 
Worker at Large; and George C. Wells, Supervisor of Indian Education. 



INCORP O RATED INDIANS OF ROUND VALLEY , CALIFORNIA . MANAGE UNIQUE 



MARKET PLACE FOR HANDICRAFTS OF MANY TRIBES AT SAN FRANCISCO 



By Clyde Hall 

Because the Indians of the Covelo Community in Round Val- 
ley, California, were among the first to adopt self-government of- 
fered by the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Golden Gate In- 
ternational Exposition today boasts of one of its most widely ac- 
claimed exhibits - the Indian market place. 

When the United States Exposition Commission asked the In- 
dian Arts and Crafts Board of the Department of the Interior to 
sponsor an exhibit, it planned as incidental to its unique demon- 




Mr. and Mrs. William Spanish, Blackf eet Indians, talking 
with Mrs. Roosevelt, to whom they presented a Navajo silver bracelet 
and a Papago basket at the Golden Gate Exposition at San Francisco. 
They offered the gifts on behalf of all the American Indians. 
George Creel, U. S. Exposition Commissioner and Rene d'Harnoncourt, 
Manager, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, are shown with Mrs. Roosevelt. 



stration of Indian culture, a market place for the sale of Indian- 
made products. The idea was good, but the possibility of carrying 
it out was remote since Congress, in establishing the Board, spe- 
cifically forbade buying and selling activities. It began to look 
as though this feature of the exhibit, introduced in anticipation of 
an almost certain public demand for Indian handiwork, would have to 
be discarded. At this critical time, the Covelo Community offered 
its cooperation. 



Having been granted a charter of self-government under the 
Reorganization Act, the community enjoyed a corporate status, and 
its tribal council was legally equipped to assume the risks and ob- 




Mayor LaGuardia of New York City reads the pictorial story 
of a Blackfeet Indian's life adventures painted on a tanned hide. 
Louise Berry Child, a member of the Blackfeet Tribe of Montana, 
shows the distinguished New Yorker, how her tribesmen recorded their 
exploits. They met at the Indian Presentation of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San 
Francisco, California. 



ligations of a corporation. After negotiating with the Arts and 
Crafts Board, the Community offered to act as host to all Indians 
desiring to sell goods at the Exposition. As a result a contract 
was drawn up between the Covelo Community and the Board which es- 
tablished the "Indian Market of the Covelo Indian Community." 

In that market place today there are displayed products 
made by Indians representing IS tribes in several states and Al- 
aska, from the Navajos of the Southwest with their famous rugs, to 
the Cherokees of North Carolina with their sturdy baskets. Beaded 
moccasins made by the women of the Blackfeet Tribe of Montana; buck- 
skin jackets of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho; beautiful, hand- 
sewn ribbon applique work made by the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma; Papago 
and California Indian baskets; Pueblo pottery; silver jewelry of the 
Navajos; these and scores of other fine hand-wrought goods are now 
offered for sale as part of the Federal exhibit. 

The market so impressed Mrs. Roosevelt on her recent visit 
to Treasure Island that she wrote: "Indians rarely offer their re- 
ally good handiwork for sale to people of other races because they 
are conscious of the fact that the vast majority of people who visit 
their reservations or shops where Indian goods are sold are very 
poor judges of the work they do and are only in search of cheap 
souvenirs. The best of their work is shown here." 

Nor would any of these things have been possible had not 
the Covelo Community appreciated, almost from the outset, the ad- 
vantages of self-government offered by the Reorganization Act. Its 
participation in the Exposition enterprise is but one of the several 
communal undertakings entered into by this Community. 

Some months ago it took advantage of another provision of 
the Reorganization Act, that of establishing a revolving fund from 
which chartered Indian groups might borrow sums in order to carry 
forward community or individual projects. The Covelo Community bor- 
rowed $12, COO from the fund, and it is disbursing the money to im- 
prove its economic position through the acquisition of such useful 
farm equipment as market trucks, gardening tools, and the like. 



4* *4- 4* •£■ 



INDIAN SERVICE OFFICIALS HOLD CONFERENCE 
AT DENVER , COLORADO , APRIL 2 TO ^ 

By Joseph McCaskill, Assistant to the Commissioner 



Speaking to more than ^00 Indian Service employees at a 
conference held at Denver, Colorado, April 3 to 7, Commissioner 
Collier declared that the program and objectives of the Indian Serv- 
ice had been driven so deeply that no radical change is possible or 
probable in the near future. His address was the highlight of a 
week's conference of Service officials devoted to a discussion of 
the basic problems. He spoke before the largest group of field 
employees that any commissioner of Indian affairs has ever addressed, 
challenging them with the tremendous importance of the enterprise 
in which they are engaged. 

In addition to the Indian Service employees there were 
four representatives of tribal councils in attendance: Mr. Carlos 
Gallineaux, and Mr. Thomas Whiting of Rosebud; Mr. Albert Yava, re- 
presenting the Hopi; and Mr. Jerrett Blythe, Chief of the Eastern 
Cherokee. 

The conference devoted three days to a discussion of the 
problems of economic rehabilitation. Divided into 15 discussion 
groups, we explored all of the difficulties and ways and means of 
achieving objectives of economic rehabilitation. The first day 
was devoted primarily to a discussion of land use. While there was 
widespread agreement that the development of an adequate land base 
and a more complete and intelligent use of natural resources were 
basic to the solution of the problem, there were many differences of 
opinion with regard to the details of working it out. The question 
of what constitutes an adequate standard of living, of how a more 
equitable distribution of land, credit and other resources can be 
made, the problem of dealing with those whose attitudes and abil- 
ities make rehabilitation extremely difficult, and the problem of 
making effective use of fractionated land holdings were some of the 
more stubborn questions on which there was little general agreement. 
The alternatives of individual land assignments, of cooperative en- 
terprises, and of corporate management of the aggregate resources 
as solutions were discussed. 

There was general agreement that wages from relief and 
other supplemental income could and should be consolidated with 



land use. While there was some feeling that income from these 
sources would be reduced in the future, it was felt by most of those 
who took part in the discussion that a certain amount of relief work 
must continue for some time. 

Throughout all of the discussions, it was constantly 
pointed out that upon the Indian himself depended the extent to 
which economic rehabilitation is possible. Much discussion there- 
fore, was devoted to questions of Indian organization, to the role 
of the tribal council, to ways and means of guaranteeing real self- 
government to Indians and preventing their domination by individuals 
or small groups with vested interests. The last day of the confer- 
ence was devoted to problems of social rehabilitation, to situations 
arising from the breakdown of home, family and community life. 
Among the more prominent problems in this discussion were (a) the 
extent to which Indians should decide for themselves the application 
of liquor laws, (b) the desirability of confering upon state juris- 
diction over certain offenses in the allotted areas. The consensus 
of those representing these areas was that state jurisdiction is 
not only desirable from the point of view of the Service officials 
but is wanted by the Indians themselves. Most of those from the 
closed reservations opposed the extension of state jurisdiction to 
their reservations. 

Wednesday, April 5, was devoted to a discussion of the re- 
lationship of the Service to the Soil Conservation Service and the 
ways and means of closer cooperation were outlined. Representatives 
from the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Farm Security 
A dmin istration, the Farm Credit Administration, Soil Conservation 
Service, and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics were present and 
spoke of the services, funds and facilities which these agencies 
provided for work on Indian reservations. 

Throughout the week and especially on Wednesday, there 
were a number of divisional meetings. The special officers and 
deputy special officers had as their guests Assistant U. S. Attorney 
Roy F. Allen, Billings, Montana, and Assistant U. S. Attorney E. H. 
Casterlin, Boise, Idaho, who spoke on technical aspects of enforce- 
ment. 

Mr. S. M. Louderdale, Safety Engineer of the CCC spoke to 
the CCC group and later to the entire conference on the question of 
safety. 

Mr. S. W. Crosthwait, Director of Personnel, was present 
and conferred individually with a number of superintendents about 
their personnel problems, met with a group of superintendents to ex- 



10 



plain the new executive orders, and spoke to the conference as a 
whole on any developments in personnel. 

John R. T. Reeves and Samuel Melzner of the legal staff 
discussed probate matters and Mr. Reeves participated in the gener- 
al discussion of the problem of developing more effective jurisdic- 
tion in law enforcement. 

W. S. Baxter, of the Statistical Section, discussed with 
an interested group the problems of the development of case records. 

Education, Forestry, Extension, Land, Indian Organization, 
Roads t Irrigation and Medical Divisions held separate meetings from 
time to time to discuss their particular problems. A number of 
joint sessions of one or more of the divisions were held. 

Commissioner Collier spoke on Wednesday morning, along 
with Allan Harper and W. V. Woehlke on the importance of closer co- 
operation with the Soil Conservation Service. 

In his Wednesday night address at the banquet Mr. Collier 
outlined briefly some of the historical aspects of the Indian prob- 
lem, called attention to the fact that there are 25,000,000 Indians 
in the western hemisphere and that the work of the Indian Service is 
profoundly significant for all of the governments of America which 
have much larger Indian groups than we have in this country. He 
spoke of the problems of securing adequate and competent personnel, 
particularly at the administrative level, and outlined some of the 
efforts now being developed more adequately to meet this need. He 
pictured the Indians' relationship to the land out of which relation- 
ship has grown the religion and other aspects of his deeply routed 
culture pattern. He dealt at length with the problem of the preser- 
vation of native cultures, with the necessity at the same time of 
the introduction of newer technologies determining that "preserva- 
tion and assimilation are the right and left leg of living," that 
there can be no assimilation without preservation, and that both 
must go on at the same time in all places. 

The Denver Conference, according to many in the Service, 
is the first gathering of Service workers of all professional in- 
terests in an attempt to grapple with basic problems of the Serv- 
ice. The fact that law enforcement officers and educational per- 
sonnel sat down along with superintendents, extension workers, roads 
and irrigation engineers, and others to discuss problems of land use 
and the whole program of economic rehabilitation marked a new step 
in Indian Service planning. While it proved very difficult to merge 
these several divided interests, there was a general consensus at 



u 



the close of the conference that those who attended regardless of 
their interests were much the wiser for having spent the time in 
this way. It is planned to assemble much of the material which 
came out of the conference and distribute it throughout the field 
in the hope that superintendents will carry through similar discus- 
sions with their staff members so that instead of £00 who attended 
the conference the experience will be extended to 4,000 employees. 



VISITOR AT SAN FRANCISCO EXPOSITION 



TO URGE THAT INDIAN EXHIBIT BE MADE PERMANENT 



Dr. Charles T. Loram, Head of the Race Relations Depart- 
ment of Yale University, has said that he is going to urge that the 
Federal Government make permanent the presentation of Indian culture 
that has been installed at the Golden Gate International Exposition. 

"It is far and away the most admirable demonstration of 
Indian culture that I have ever seen," said Dr. Loram. "I intend 
to urge John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to set up the 
exhibit permanently somewhere - perhaps in the Interior Department 
at Washington - in order that future students may profit by the 
splendid lessons it teaches." 

Heading a field trip of twelve students, representing 
several nations, who are studying the force of the impact of Western 
civilization on minority groups, Dr. -Lorain and his party visited 
the Exposition particularly to study the exhibit of Indian cultures. 
They arrived in San Francisco, following a three-day visit at the 
Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota. From San Francisco they went 
to the Southwest country to study the culture of the Navajo Indians. 




12 



Wilson Ahboah, Kiowa Dancer, Who Participated In The 
National Folk Festival In Washington. D. C . , May 1938 . 




Photograph By George A. Grant 



13 



INDIAN DANCERS PRESENT VIVID AND 



BEAUTIFUL CEREMONIALS IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL 



Zunis, Mescalero Apaches And Kiowas Provide High Lights 

Of The Annual National Folk Festival; Significant 

And Interpretive Dances Attract Wide Interest. 



In line with their policy of encouraging Indian expression 
through arts and ceremonials, the Department of the Interior and its 
Office of Indian Affairs are sponsoring a vivid portrayal of Indian 

dancing in connection with the Annual Folk 
Festival in Washington. Three groups of 
Indians have for many weeks made plans and 
preparations to present their tribal lore 
at this year's Festival being held for 
three days beginning April 27, at Consti- 
tution Hall. With the Office of Indian 
Affairs as their sponsor, the Kiowas of 
I Anadarko, Oklahoma, and the Zunis an d 
Mescalero Apaches of New Mexico appeared 
on all six programs. 

The Kiowa group opens the Festi- 
val as they have done in previous years. 
Led by Stephen Mopope, noted for his paint- 
ing as well as for his dancing ability the 
Indians present such traditional dances as 
the Shield Dance, the Humming Bird Dance, 

the Bird Dance, the Eagle Dance, and two war dances. Chief Bela 

Cozad, octogenarian flute maker, whose 

fingers are agile despite his age, plays 

•the drums. 

The Apaches, like the Zunis, 
are participating in the festival for 
the first time. Their dance is describ- 
ed and briefly interpreted thus: 

The Maiden's Dance , Or Crown Dance 



This dance has been sometimes 
called the Crown Dance, or more popular- 
ly the Devil Dance, because of the fan- 




Chief Bela Cozad 




Stephen Mopope 



u 



tastic costumes of the four supernatural beings who are the princi- 
pal performers. It celebrates the arrival at maidenhood by the 
young Apache girl. The supernaturals are dancing to bring her good 
fortune and the dance climaxes four days of private ceremonies. 

A large dance ground is prepared beyond the tepee, with a 
tree set to mark it at north, south, east and west, and a dried 
beef hide (once a buffalo hide) folded and laid on the ground to 
serve as a drum. A group of musicians squat around it, smiting it 
loudly with sticks, to the sound of their singing. 

There is social dancing, a group of three or four girls 
in a row, moving backward and forward, while three or four youths 
move opposite, never touching them. At intervals the social danc- 
ing ceases and there come stamping in the four tall masked beings 
who are the gods of the north, south, east and west. They wear 
great headdresses of wooden slats, shaped like fans or crescents 
and painted with symbolical figures. 

The gans or gahe as these gods are called in various Apa- 
che dialects, wear kilts made of deerskin or of bright-colored blan- 
kets. The kilt was the ancient costume of the Southwest and while 
the village Indians made it of their own home-woven cotton, the 
hunting Apache used skins. The footgear of the dancers is the tall 
mocassin worn by Apache warriors who had to travel through stones 
and brush. In the right hand they carry a jagged stave, meant, some 
say, to represent the wooden sword, edged with obsidian, which used 
to be carried by Indian warriors in Mexico. Their stalwart bodies 
are decorated with symbols representing corn, wind and rain. Only a 
few men know how to apply these symbols and they do it after a spe- 
cial ceremony. When asked to costume their dancers in haste, for a 
press photograph, they replied that it was quite impossible. Cos- 
tuming for this dance was a sacred act, not to be undertaken light- 
ly. Over their faces the gods wear black masks. Thus the Apache 
indicates the unimaginable face of a supernatural being. 



The Dance Is Individualistic 

There is no set form for the dance of the gods. Each one 
stamps and postures as he wills. Some of the poses are grotesque, 
but this does not detract from the sanctity of the strange beings 
whose ways are not as human ways. Their mere presence brings the 
winds of the four directions and therefore the rain which means food 
and life. 



15 



Between the figures of the gods capers an agile form, 
masked but without headdress, known as the clown. Such jesters are 
frequent figures in the dances of Southwest Indians and though they 
caricature the dancers and seem to flout them, no disrespect is in- 
volved. The clown is himself a supernatural being, so sacred that 
he can joke where human beings are reverent. When he mimics the 
dancers and makes the audience laugh, he is actually bringing his 
sacred power as an added blessing. 

It is this dance of the four directions, with the clown 
accompaniment, that is being given at the folk festival. The maid- 
ens in their tepee, however, are not present, and indeed the Apache 
of former times are said to have given the dance of the masked gods 
on other occasions than that of the arrival at maidenhood. 



Zunis Offer Five Dances 

Zuni dances are being performed by Henry Gaspar, Governor 
of the Zuni Pueblo, and five other men and two women. The five men 
are: Bi Ami, Harry Epaloose, Oscar Gaspar, William Louis and Johnny 
Pattone. The girls are: Lucy Epaloose and Ellen Quam. 

Here are the Zuni dances being presented: 

1. Yellow Corn Dance : Held in the fall of each year af- 
ter the harvesting is done. In addition to rejoicing after the har- 
vesting is completed and returning thanks for its abundance, the 
pueblo celebrates the installation of the new Cacique, or priests. 
The men sing, accompanied by a drum and the rattle of gourds. Both 
men and women participate in this dance. 

2. Corn Grinding Dance : A continuation or second move- 
ment of the Yellow Corn Dance, usually held when the corn is ripe, 
or whenever ordered by the Cacique. The purpose is to express their 
happiness and to return thanks that their prayers for plentiful and 
good crops were answered. It also signifies the preparation for the 
harvesting and husking of the corn. The men who do not dance will 
sing, accompanied by the rhythm of beating drums and rattling gourds. 

3. Rainbow Dance : Since the Zuni Indians are, for the 
most part, farmers, they are dependent upon rain for their live- 
lihood. Therefore, the whole community celebrates heavy rainfall. 
Again, the expression in dancing signifies their thankfulness that 
the prayers of the Cacique for rain have been answered. Both men 
and women participate. Their bright costumes are designed to repre- 



16 



sent the colors in the rainbow, 
and gourds. 



The men sing accompanied by a drum 



U. Hunting Dance ; The members of the community rush out 
to meet the successful hunters. The whole tribe, men, women, and 
children, participate in this dance. Thanksgiving for the success 
of the hunting trip and provision of needed food is the theme. The 
Cacique also prays for the future success of hunting ventures. All 
the dancers join in the singing, accompanied again by their only mu- 
sical instruments, the drum and gourds. 

5. Basket Dance ; Held on New Year's Day. It is also 
the occasion for the installation of the administrative officers of 
the Zuni Pueblo. The celebration on this first day of the year is 
similar to that held elsewhere in the world. Both men and women 
participate in this dance, characterized by the dancers' carrying 
empty baskets in their hands. The songs are sung by the men, ac- 
companied by the beating of drums and rattling of gourds. 

The Zuni Indians are 
noted for their creative ability in 
the composition of songs. They do 
not ordinarily sing the same words to 
any song twice, but make up words to 
fit the occasion. 



Indians Are Outstandin g Feature 

The Indians are the featur- 
ed performance in a show which also 
includes the folk expression of doz- 
ens of other groups. Square dancers 
come from Massachusetts and Colora- 
do; also Indian square dancers from 
Cherokee, North Carolina; miners from 
Pennsylvania will sing their ballads; 
lumberjacks tell tales as tall as the 
trees of the North Woods. The presen- 
tation is sponsored by the Washington 
Post Folk Festival Association. 




Jeanette Kopope 



Founded in 1933 to encourage the preservation of folk 
arts and customs, the festivals have been held at St. Louis, Chat- 
tanooga, Chicago and Dallas. The fifth festival took place in Wa- 
shington last year. In addition to the Kiowas, Indian tribes who 
took part in the 1938 festival were the Blackfeet, Navajos, Chick- 
asaws and Winnebagos. 



17 



Of all the groups participating, none have ever attracted 
as deep and genuine an interest as the Indians. In these folk fes- 
tivals the first Americans are first indeed. 



(The material for this article was contributed by Jean 
Dulaney of the Washington Post, Miss Ruth M. Underhill, anthropolo- 
gist, Education Division, Office of Indian Affairs, and William 
Louis, Zuni dancer. ) 




One of the streets in the village of Zuni, New Mexico. 
Corn Mountain is in the distance. Zuni was once made up of seven 
villages, known to the early Spaniards as the Seven Cities of Ci- 
bola. (Photograph by George A. Grant) 



18 



INDIANS OF ACOMA PUEBLO USE CACTUS TO SUPPLEMENT FEED 
FOR THEIR LIVESTOCK 




Heavy snows i n the vicin- 
ity o f the Acoma Reservation during 
the early part of January made it 
necessary to bring the Acoma and La- 
guna livestock down from the high 
mesas into the Acoma Va lley. The 
feed on the range in Acoma Val ley 
was inadequate to support the live- 
stock through the cold weather and 
the Acoma -Indians were faced with 
the possibility of losing many of 
their animals. The idea of using 
cactus as food for the livestock was 
investigated. A survey showed two 
types of cactus growing in this area 
- tree cactus (cholla) and prickley 
pear cactus. The cactus grew in suf- 
ficient quantities for 15,000 to 18,000 cow days' feed, but the 
heavy spines prevented the animals from eating it. 

The Land-Use Division suggested to the Indians that they 
burn the spines from the cactus so that it could be used for feed. 
The Indians were enthusiastic over the idea and two kerosene burners 
were purchased. The first one was purchased by the Pueblo Agency, 
to demonstrate to the Indians the possibility of this work, and af- 
ter the Indians saw how effectively the cactus could be used for 
food, the stockmen purchased the other burner with their own money. 
Both cactus burners are now being operated by the Indians. One man 
can burn the spines from enough plants to enable 150 to 200 cattle 
to feed each day. 

The burners are constructed so that they use heavy air 
pressure and can be heard for a distance of half a mile or more. 
The cattle soon learned to eat the spineless cactus and enjoyed the 
plants. In large groups they follow the men around who are burning 
the cactus, and some of the more ambitious animals have had their 
eyelashes singed by trying to eat the plant before the burner had 
been removed. At the present time, approximately 350 head of cattle 
are subsisting on the cactus and are doing well. 



19 



CCC-ID IS DEFINITELY A FIELD PROGRAM 



By Robert J. Ballantyne, 
Supervisor, CCC-ID 



The CCC-ID program is one that the field can claim as its 
own. Work programs originate with the superintendents and their 
local staffs in cooperation with the tribal councils. They are 
routed through district offices to receive the benefit of technical 
assistance of trained specialists in the various phases of produc- 
tion. When received in Washington, approvals and allotments adhere 
to the programs submitted as closely as is possible, consistent 
with funds and regulations. 

To emphasize that the CCC-ID program is a field program 
and to help keep it that way, a memorandum was sent on December 9, 
to all superintendents and CCC-ID district officials asking for 
suggestions for improvement and constructive criticism from super- 
intendents, councils, employees and staff members. 

The response to this memorandum has been gratifying. To 
date, approximately half of the agencies engaged in CCC work have 
replied and most of the replies received have indicated genuine, 
intelligent interest, besides an honest desire to contribute ideas 
to improve the organization. 

Some of the suggestions, although desirable, cannot be put 
into effect, due to the regulations under which we are operating. 
The ideas submitted by the greatest number were: (l) "Waive the 
$930 limitation;" (2) "Raise the limitation;" and (3) "Fund limita- 
tions should be on a 50-50 basis instead of a 60-40 basis." 

The most recent information we have received indicates 
that although the over-all limi tation will not be removed, it may be 
increased by $50, making it $980 per enrollee for the fiscal year 
1940. Also, in order that certain necessary items may be purchased 
to replace old, completely worn out equipment, we are hopeful that 
the fund limitations will be on a 55-45 percentage basis, i.e. 55 
per cent to be expended for enrollee wages, subsistence, etc., pay- 
ments; and 45 per cent for the payment of salaries of employees, pur- 
chase of materials and equipment. 



20 



An example of the type of ideas submitted that are excel- 
lent, but impossible of execution is the one from Mr. Charles Bird, 
CCC-ID Project Manager, at the Fort Bert ho Id Agency. Mr. Bird ad- 
vocates the standardization of automotive equipment to prevent ex- 
cessive costs and delays due to the inability of agencies with small 
program allotments to maintain complete and adequate stocks or parts 
for more than one make of car or truck. A very desirable idea, but 
under existing regulations which insist that the low bid invariably 
governs, it does not seem possible to put into effect. 

Another suggestion, we believe to be excellent, but per- 
haps impossible of execution, is the one submitted by Mr. Robert 
V/ehr, Senior Project Manager, Mission Agency, and also by the Pine 
Ridge, Rosebud, Standing Rock, Turtle Mountain and United Pueblos 
Agencies and the Billings District Office. Mr. Wehr would like to 
charge all direct payments to enrollees, such as team hire with per- 
sonal services, to the enrollee limitation. This Office tried and 
failed to obtain permission to do this at the beginning of the fis- 
cal year. Another effort will be made in the very near future as a 
result of the submission of the idea. 

Several good ideas were submitted which we believe can be 
put into effect. On some of these, we believe it necessary to cir- 
cularize the entire field and obtain the opinion of all superinten- 
dents before they are adopted. We hope that at least spme of the 
following suggestions can be put into effect beginning with the 
next fiscal year. 



Adopt the uniform cost accounting system for 
CCC-ID - submitted by the Consolidated Ute Agencj r , the 
Truxton Canon Agency and the Phoenix District Office. 

Continue our efforts to reduce and simplify re- 
porting - submitted by the Pipestone, Great Lakes, Con- 
solidated Ute, Standing Rock, Uintah and Ouray, Fort Ber- 
thold Agencies and the Phoenix and Salt Lake Districts. 

Authorize superintendents to exceed project 
authorities by 10 per cent providing total estimate does 
not exceed $5>000. Transfers to be made, of course, from 
available savings in other projects - submitted by the 

Pine Ridge Agency. 

Give the district offices the authority to ap- 
prove small supplemental projects costing $500 or less - 
submitted by the Uintah and Ouray Agency. 



21 



Make every possible effort to expedite the is- 
suance of report forms requested by field offices and es- 
tablish a stock of forms at each district office for is- 
suance to agencies as needed - submitted by the Mescalero, 
Red Lake, Rosebud, Uintah and Ouray Agencies and the Phoe- 
nix and Salt Lake Districts. 



To all those who have responded to the request for sugges- 
tions, the sincere thanks of the CCC Division of the Washington Of- 
fice are extended. 

Those who have not yet sent in their ideas are asked to do 
so as soon as they possibly can in order that those which can be put 
into effect will receive action prior to the beginning of the next 
fiscal year. 



NIMBLE BIGHORN SOMETIMES DO LOSE THEIR BALANCE 



Bighorn sheefp are proverbially sure-footed, scaling steeps 
and leaping from one seemingly inaccessible crag to another. It is 
of unusual interest, therefore, to learn that these agile creatures 
sometimes miss their footing. 

Death Valley National Monument, California reports such 
an instance. A sleeping bighorn ewe was so startled when a natural- 
ist and his assistant stumbled upon her that she lost her balance, 
in trying to escape down a steep slope. She turned several somer- 
saults, in her plunge, twisting her head under her Dody, and catch- 
ing her horns in a bush. 

The dazed animal was extricated with some difficulty and 
hogtied, while the extent of her injuries was inventoried. As no 
bones had been broken, the ewe was released, seemingly unharmed. 



<& O & 



22 




23 



FISH CONTROL PROGRAM ANNOUNCED FOR PRESERVATION OF MIGRATORY FISH 
IN COLUMBIA RIVER AT GRAND COULEE DAM 



Editor's Note ; To the Indians of the Northwest the Co- 
lumbia River has for uncounted generations been a source of life. 
Fishing in the Columbia and its tributaries has not only been an 
important source of food and cash but it has in a sense become a 
symbol and a way of life. Thus the building of the great dams at 
Bonneville and at Grand Coulee have been matters of deep interest 
to Indians who have expressed fears at times that their fishing 
heritage might be lost. The developments set forth in the accom- 
panying announcement by Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, will 
therefore be of unusual interest to the many Indian fishermen of 
Washington and Oregon. 

The Grand Coulee Dam pictured in the accompanying photo- 
graphs adjoins the vast Colville Indian. Reservation. 




Night View During Construction Of Grand Coulee Dam 



2k 



Secretary of the Interior Ickes has announced approval of 
plans for the permanent control of the migratory fish in the Colum- 
bia River. The plan will involve construction by the Bureau of 
Reclamation, in connection with Grand Coulee Dam, of hatcheries and 
other works costing approximately $2,500,000. 

This fish control program is made necessary by the fact 
that, when completed, the Grand Coulee Dam now being constructed in 
the Columbia River will be so high, that the salmon annually jour- 
neying upstream to spawn, cannot pass. The permanent works will be 
ready to care for the runs subsequent t o 1939 of the Chinook, 
steelhead and blueback salmon, the commercial species which reach 
Grand Coulee Dam in numbers totaling between 20,000 and 25,000 an- 
nually, bound for the headwater streams to spawn. 

The 1939 runs will be handled on a temporary but adequate 
basis. They will be trapped at Rock Island Dam, below the Grand 
Coulee Dam, and transported by means of a fleet of specially de- 
signed tank trucks to tributaries which enter the Columbia River be- 
low Grand Coulee Dam, where they can spawn. 

"The plan has been very carefully worked out," Secretary 




m 



Indians Spearing Fish In Columbia River. Photograph by B. C. 
Markham, The Dalles, Oregon 



25 



Ickes said. "It was given close attention by officers of the State 
of Washington and by the Federal Bureau of Fisheries, and then re- 
viewed and check in detail by consultants employed by the Bureau of 
Reclamation. . . 

"While it is recognized that the program may be experi- 
mental in some respects, there seems to be ample assurance that at 
least the present runs of migratory fish in the river will be pro- 
tected and probably that the runs will be increased in the future." 



VARIED MATERIAL AVAILABLE FOR EXHIBITS 

Mr. E. K. Burlew, First Assistant Secretary of the In- 
terior, has announced that the Department has numerous items of ex- 
hibit material which it is believed could be used from time to time 
for educational displays at conventions, fairs, travel and outdoor 
life shows, etc. This material consists of lighted and animated di- 
oramas and models, colored transparencies installed in cabinets, In- 
dian arts and crafts, and native -arts and crafts from Alaska, Ha- 
waii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Specifically, the list 
of dioramas and models* includes the following subjects: 

(1) An animated diorama of the "Loop" on the Alaska Rail- 
road; (2) An animated diorama, with sound effects, of Juneau, Al- 
aska; (3) An animated diorama showing the interior of a coal mine 
and the resuscitation of a miner overcome by gas fumes; (4) The in- 
terior of a lead-zinc mine in the Tri-State District of Kansas, 
Oklahoma and Missouri, showing inspectors at work; (5) A view of 
Charlotte-Amalie (St. Thomas, Virgin Islands),, from the veranda of 
the new Bluebeard Castle Hotel; (6) An animated model of Boulder 
Dam; (7) Two dioramas, one with animation, showing the before and 
after effects of flood control; (8) An animated diorama of a Navajo 
Indian hogan, with silversmiths and a rug weaver at work; (9) An 
animated model of a PWA construction job; (10) An animated diorama 
of the PWA Triborough Bridge in New York (night scene). 

The exhibit material above described is on display in the 
studio of the Office of Exhibits of the Department, at 1709 L Street, 
N. W. , Washington, D. C. , and arrangements for the loan of such ma- 
terial, for the purpose indicated in the first paragraph of this 
article, should be made with Mr. Dickens, Supervisor of Exhibits, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 



26 



A LAWYER LOOKS AT THE AMERICAN INDIAN, 


PAST AND PRESENT 



Note: This is the second part of a speech which 
was delivered by Samuel J. Flickinger, Assistant C hie f 
Counsel, Office of Indian Affairs, on February 18, 1939, 
before the members of the Order of Indian Wars of the 
United States, held at the Army and Navy Club in Washing- 
ton, D. C, on the occasion of their annual banquet. This 
was the first time this essentially military group had 
ever entertained a speaker from the Indian Service. Part 
One of this article appeared in the April issue. 



A new Governmental policy was established by Congress by 
the passage on June 18, 193^ of an Act known as the Reorganization 
Act. This legislation provided for the setting up of self-govern- 
ment and for self-determination by the Indians themselves. The In- 
dians of a particular reservation voted on whether or not the pro- 
visions of the Act should be rejected. Some 189 Indian tribes voted 
to retain the provisions of the Act and some 78 tribes voted to re- 
ject the Act. The tribes in Oklahoma by amendment of June 26, 1936, 
are entitled to some of the benefits of the Act as are the tribes 
of Alaska who were granted such benefits by the amendment of May 1, 
1936. Constitutions and by-laws have been adopted by many and char- 
ters granted pursuant to Sections 16 and 17 under that Act. Under 
this new system or policy group organization is encouraged; credit 
supplied to Indian tribes and Indian cooperatives. 

There has been a decline in the acreage of Indian lands 
leased to whites and an increase in the use of lands by Indiana. 
Plans for land, range, timber and soil conservation have been car- 
ried on, the latter in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice. The Indians have been granted fundamental rights enjoyed by 
white citizens; power of the Indian Bureau over Indians (tribal 
funds, civic authority) restricted. Social Security Administration, 
Civilian Conservation Corps, Works Progress Administration, State 
Board Education and state welfare agencies have cooperated. The 
right of Indians to their own language, ceremonies, arts and tra- 
ditions have been respected and encouraged. Certain so-called gag 
and sedition laws repealed. System of justice for Indians- has been 
recognized and safeguarded from official control by Indian courts 
whose jurisdiction has been carefully defined. The Indian Bureau 
fosters the right to negotiate through representatives of the In- 
dians' own choosing. Increased medical, dental and health activ- 
ities of the Bureau have resulted in the decrease in the Indian 
death rate to 13.7 per thousand in 1936; whereas the average rate in 



27 



the United States is 11.5. Nine new hospitals have been built; 
twenty have been remodeled or enlarged and one is tinder construction. 
Many boarding schools were closed or reduced in size and personnel 
improved; others developed as centers for older children or children 
from broken or problem homes; seventy-four new community day schools 
have been opened, enrolling 5,000 children. Six thousand, four hun- 
dred and thirty more children have been enrolled in public schools 
with the cooperation of the states in Indian education. The total 
number of Indian pupils in schools is 65,000. An Indian Arts and 
Crafts Board was created to raise the standard of workmanship, es- 
tablish authenticity and provide markets for Indian arts and crafts. 

Indian employment in regular and emergency services have 
greatly increased. For example, Indians in the Washington Office 
have increased from 11 in 1933 to 83 in 1937. On April 1, 1938, a 
total of 3,916 Indians were employed in the Service, 3,627 of whom 
were regular employees and 389 emergency workers employed for six 
months or more. The total number of the regular personnel is about 
6,000. 

Between March 1933 and December 1937 the total of the In- 
dian land holdings increased approximately 2,780,000 acres. The Re- 
organization Act authorized an appropriation of $2,000,000 a year 
for land purchase. There has been acquired 2^6.110 acres as of De- 
cember 1, 1937 for Indian use. During the same period, an addition- 
al 349,207 acres was added to Indian reservations, under the author- 
ity which the Indian Reorganization Act conferred upon the Secretary 
of the Interior to restore Indian lands which had been opened to 
homestead entry as surplus Indian lands whenever such lands are 
still held by the Federal Government and their restoration is not 
contrary to public policy. Special legislation enacted accounts 
for the addition of another 1,203,808 acres to the Indian domain. 
An additional area of approximately a million acres has been in- 
cluded in submarginal land purchases for use by the Indians. 

Under the Reorganization Act $4,000,000 has already been 
appropriated for loans to incorporated Indian tribes. These credit 
funds are being expended almost entirely for capital investment in 
the form of agricultural machinery, farm buildings and other im- 
provements, livestock, sawmills and fishing equipment. 

In addition to the advancements made by the Indians, it 
will not be amiss to give you some idea of a few of the projects 
carried on by and for the Indians. Approximately 45,000,000 acres 
of Indian lands are now in forest and range; timber land approxi- 
mating 6,000,000 acres and woodland 8,000,000 acres. The estimated 
volume board feet of timber is 33,000,000,000 with an estimated 



28 



value of $90,000,000. Timber production and sales for the fiscal 
year 1938 amounted to over 426,000,000 feet with a gross income of 
$1,175,000. The range area approximates 40,000,000 acres which pro- 
duced a total income to the Indians for the same period of approx- 
imately $1,420,000. There are two principal sawmill operations 
carried on - one on the Menominee Reservation in Wisconsin and the 
other on the Red Lake Reservation in Minnesota. During the year the 
Menominee Mills manufactured 18,000,000 feet of lumber and shipped 
approximately 15,000,000 board feet. At the Red Lake Mills, approx- 
imately 7,000,000 feet were manufactured and approximately 4,000, 
000 feet were sold. 

There are approximately 1,200,000 acres of Indian lands 
under Indian irrigation projects, of which about 800,000 acres are 
under completed works. The cost of constructing irrigation works 
has amounted to $54,000,000. About $46,000,000 more will be re- 
quired to complete the projects. The largest single structure on 
any of the reservation projects is the Coolidge Dam in Arizona a- 
cross the Gila River. Electric power is generated as an incident 
to irrigation at this dam. 

Another enterprise carried on is the cattle industry. For 
the fiscal year 1937 the Indians received a total income in the cat- 
tle operations of approximately $2,000,000; sheep and goat opera- 
tions brought in an additional $1,500,000. There are about 21,000 
Indians who own cattle. 

On the Flathead Reservation in Montana a license for the 
development of a hydro-electric power project on the Flathead River 
within the Flathead Indian Reservation was granted by the Federal 
Power Commission with the consent and cooperation of the Department 
under conditions which will ultimately net $175,000 annually to the 
Flathead Indians. 

The Act of April 16, 1934 authorized the Secretary of the 
Interior to make contracts with states for social services to In- 
dians. Under this Act, contracts have been made with the states of 
California, Washington and Minnesota, for the education of Indian 
children in public schools. In the field of public health, a simi- 
lar basis of cooperation has been established in the states of Min- 
nesota, Wisconsin, North Carolina and Oklahoma. 

The lack of opportunities for higher learning for Indians 
was partially remedied by a provision in the Indian Reorganization 
Act setting up a special loan fund for the collegiate, professional 
and vocational education of Indian youths in colleges of their own 
choice. 



29 



In the field of health, increased efforts toward the con- 
trol of tuberculosis, trachoma and other diseases endemic within the 
Indian country have resulted in lowering the Indian death rate as 
heretofore indicated. 

No doubt you have wondered about the many mistakes made by 
the Federal Government in handling the affairs of the Indians and 
how the Indians may obtain redress if any was forthcoming. The In- 
dians through their attorneys employed for such purposes present to 
Congress their grievances and if meritorious, succeed in having en- 
acted into law what are known as jurisdictional acts. These acts 
authorize the particular tribe of Indians to go into the United 
States Court of Claims and sue the United States for such alleged 
wrongs with the right to have the Supreme Court of the United States 
finally pass upon the case. Some 160 suits by different tribes of 
Indians have been prosecuted in this way. During 1938 two sizeable 
judgments were rendered by the Supreme Court of the United States in 
favor of the Indians, namely the Shoshone Indians in the State of 
Wyoming, approximately $6,000,000 and the Klamath Indians in the 
State of Oregon, approximately $5,000,000. 

Many Indians have distinguished themselves. They have 
served in Congress and state legislatures. A former vice-president 
of the United States, Charles Curtis, was a Kaw Indian. The famous 
humorist, Will Rogers, was a Cherokee Indian. Last, but by far not 
the least, over 17,000 Indians served the United States in the World 
War. 



INDIAN WONDERS IF HE NEEDS A TAIL LIGHT ON HIS HORSE 

Navajo Indians requested to put red reflectors on their 
wagons, are afraid of further "government encroachment. n 

"Does this mean that soon we must buy state licenses for 
our wagons?" they asked at a tribal meeting. 

"Will tail lights for our saddle horses be required next?" 

(Reprinted from the Gazette - Gallup, New Mexico) 



30 



>*-' ' ! 



« 



w 



M 




31 



INDIANS AT RED LAKE. MINNESOTA . MEET PROBLEMS OF A CHANGING WORLD 

By Mary M. Kirkland, Social Worker, 
and 
Clarence V. Ringey, Farm Agent 




,»rr 



Unloading Lumber At Bed Lake 



The 
Red Lake Reser- 
vation in Minne- 
sota, created in 
1864.5 is an ex- 
ample of an In- 
dian area whose 
resources offer 
hope for the fu- 
ture, but whose 
people are face- 
ed with the dif- 
ficulties of 
changing cultur- 
al patterns. 



The Chippewa, TtwHatib of this area are primarily a woods 
people and are naturally not inclined toward agriculture as their 
means of livelihood. In the past, their existence has been depend- 
ent chiefly upon the abundant supply provided by nature - fish and 
game. However, lumbering and fishing are Red Lake's two chief in- 
dustries, although some of the Indians derive an income from the 
sale of berries, wild rice, maple sugar, hay and wood. 

Lumbering Is An Important Trwinarfcry- 



The Red Lake Tra^aiq Hill was established, through the De- 
partment Appropriation Act of June 1924 which provided $75 , COO for 
the construction of a sawmill and later, an additional $6, COO to 
equip the mill. The mill operated until 1932, at which time it 
closed down because of a poor lumber market and general economic 
conditions. It was run for a short time during May 1933, for the 
production of railroad ties, but did not reopen again until 1935 
for any large volume of business. Since that time, the mill has 
offered a source of employment for the Indians of the Bed Lake Res- 
ervation. 

During the fiscal year 1938, 6,500,000 feet of logs were 
cut for the Bed Lake Indian Sawmill, 5,000,000 of which were virgin 



32 



pine from Ponemah Point and the balance mostly aspen. These logs 
cut out a very nice quality of lumber which so far has found a very 
depressed market, but which will prove to be very desirable to buy- 
ers, should general- economic conditions improve. 

On August 19, 1937, the mill requested authority to adver- 
tise for bids for the cutting and delivering of 1,000,000 feet of 
aspen logs to the savimill. This was in keeping with the program for 
the cutting and marketing of the secondary species of timber. 

From the fall of 1936 to August 1937, orders were placed 
with the Indians for 390,000 feet of aspen logs. Of this amount 
only 199,990 feet were received, and it was necessary for the saw- 
mill crew to haul 36,150 feet of these logs after the Indians had 
failed to keep their contract. 

The sawmill, including the logging camp, is a source of 
income for approximately seventy-five Indians throughout the entire 
year. The wages received by the Indians in 1937 were $52,659.00 and 
$87,127.00 during the fiscal year 1938. There are about 110,000 
acres on the Red Lake Reservation 
which constitute the Red Lake 
Forest. 

The logging on this 
reservation is done on Ponemah 
Point which is a peninsula di- 
viding Upper and Lower Red Lake. 
The timber cut here is hauled a 
distance of approximately twen- 
ty-seven miles to the Red Lake 
Sawmill by truck. After the lum- 
ber is manufactured, it is sent 
to Bemidji as the terminal. 

Fishing Also Furnishes 

Income For Indians 

Another important in- 
dustry on the Red Lake Reserva- 
tion is fishing. 



On April 21, 1919, the 
State Legislature of Minneso t a 
passed Chapter 314 which, under 
certain circumstances, authorized 




Wall-Eyed Pike Well Packed 
And Ready For Icing. 



33 



fishing for commercial purposes. This was passed as an emergency 
measure and was at first limited to rough, or non-game fish. In 
1921, this Act was extended to cover game fish, and the said Act 
of 1919 created the State Fish Revolving Fund, available for the 
purpose of conducting state fishing operations. In 1924, the Game 
and Fish Commission entered into a written contract with the su- 
perintendent of the Red Lake Reservation on behalf of the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs and the Secretary of the Interior, which 
was to extend over a period of five years until 1929, employing 
the Indians of the Red Lake Reservation to net the fish; this agree- 
ment was to provide payment for royalties on all fish taken with 
nets. During this time, however, the State made a number of im- 
provements, including a fish hatchery, a commercial fish building, 
a large warehouse and freezing plant, and cottages for the employ- 
ees. This was all done at no expense to the State of Minnesota. 



Red Lake Fishery Association Organized 

In 1929 it was necessary for the State to withdraw from 
this activity, having been forced out of this enterprise by liti- 
gations of interests which regarded such activity as competition 
vd.th private industry ^ and the State was forced to find someone to 
take over the equipment as the fishery had been an important source 
of income for approximately 200 fishermen. The Red Lake Indians 
and the Indian Office were anxious for the project to continue, . 
therefore, the Red Lake Fishery Association was organized as a cor- 
poration under the Cooperative Marketing laws of the State of Min- 
nesota. The Game and Fish Commission reached an agreement with the 
Association whereby a lease for the buildings and equipment was en- 
tered into for a period of five years - the Association agreeing to 
pay one-half of the salaries of the superintendent and the assist- 
ant superintendent of the hatchery. In 1934 the new contract pro- 
vided for five-eighths of the costs of operating the hatchery and 
the salary of the manager of the fishery to be paid by the Associ- 
ation. 

The Red Lake Fishery Association has a board of five di- 
rectors, all members of the Red Lake Band of Indians. The fishing 
season is restricted to the period from May 15 to November 15 and 
only members of the Red Lake Tribe may be engaged in fishing. These 
Indians may become members of the Association and market their fish 
through the Red Lake Fishery Association. All fishing operations, 
for commercial purposes may be suspended at any time by orders from 
the superintendent of the reservation. No Indian shall sell fish 



3U 



in any quantity outside of the reservation, except in accordance 
with the state laws of the State of Minnesota. There are definite 
rules and regulations concerning the Association and the management 
of the fishery. It is the responsibility of the Board of Directors 
to employ a manager selected by the Game and Fish Commissioner of 
the state. The manager has charge of the general supervision of 
the business of the Association. He directs tn« production, sort- 
ing, • packing, transporting and selling of the fish and other prod- 
ucts handled by the Association. He determines the quantity, kind 
and size of fish to be taken and the method of taking these fish, 
subject to the superior supervision and control of the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs. (The concluding part of this article will ap- 
pear in an early issue. ) 



PAIUTE LEGEND 

A long time ago, so the legend goes, animals had the per- 
sonality of people. They lived like Indians and spoke the Indian 
language . 

It was in the winter time when all the coyotes and foxes 
in the village held a meeting. They had a discussion about the 
weather and couldn't figure out why there hadn't been any rain or 
snow at this time of the year. Someone in the crowd suggested sing- 
ing a snow song - perhaps that might make the snow fall. So they 
all_began singing a snow song. There happened to be a mouse at the 
meeting. After singing for a while, they sent the mouse to see if 
it had snowed. The snow had fallen, but the mouse was so little and 
light that he was able to walk on top of the snow. 

The mouse then went back in and told them that it hadn't 
even begun to snow. So they sang a little longer and harder, and 
again they sent the mouse out. He came back in and told the same 
story as he told the first time. 

The third time he told them the same thing. They didn't 
believe him this time so the fox went out to see for himself. The 
snow was so deep that the fox sunk into it. He was so angry, that 
when he saw the mouse in front of him, he began to chase him through 
the snow. The snow got deeper and deeper until it was impossible 
for the fox to go on, so he gave up. The mouse was so frightened 
that he didn't take time to look back. He kept g o ing until he 
reached the mountains. He made his home up there and that is why 
we sometimes find mice in the mountains. Nupah-tawnee-i . 



35 



TEXTBOOK FOR THE PLAINS 
By John Herrick, Assistant to the Commissioner 



MARGINAL LAND - By Horace Kramer, J. P. Lippincott Company, 
Philadelphia. 1939. 

A novel as a textbook in conservation! 

I make the recommendation in all seriousness; -direct to 
all who live, and work, and guide agricultural economy in the states 
of the Great Plains. 

Horace Kramer's Marginal Land, by sound literary merit, 
has won a place among recently published best-sellers. But this 
brief introduction to a series of excerpts from the book will leave 
literary criticism to the literary critics. 

Since Paul B. Sears' Deserts on the March no work has ap- 
peared which describes so tellingly the tragedies which beset man 
when he disregards the natural laws laid down for the use of the 

land. 

The locale of Marginal Land is in the heart of the Sioux 
country, a ranch four miles north of the Crow Creek Reservation. 
All readers will be stirred by the story of Steve Randall; of Jo- 
sephine, the city-bred wife whose fortitude was not firm enough to 
withstand the fight with winter and wind, drought and desolation; 
of Trina, to whom love and loyalty were synonymous, and who finally 
filled the place Josephine had deserted. But only one who has him- 
self or herself contended with Nature on the battlefield of the 
Drought Country can savor to the full the wisdom of old Simon Peter 
Voorhees, foreman for the state company in the old military days of 
the late 60 's and the 70' s. 

It is "Uncle Sime" who attempts to get Steve and his ranch 
started right with a homily on man and his use of Dakota grasslands. 

"Don't you try raising any wheat J" he warns, then contin- 
ues: "When Almighty God was laying out this world and came to this 
place, He turned to Gabriel or whoever happened to be around at the 
time and said, 'This here is going to be a stock country - cattle 
and horses, and maybe a few sheep here and there. I'm going to fix 
it so's ray children will know what I intended and prepared for 'em 
when they come. I'll cover it over with good rich grass that cures 



36 



on the stem and so's they'll make no mistake, I'll fill it full of 
buffalo. Then, when the hungry generations of man come to this 
place and see the grass and the buffalo, they'll know what the land 
is for, and dwell happily and prosperously with their flocks and 
herds. ' 

"But what happened? The country began to settle up when 
the railroads came. The buffalo were long gone then, and these set- 
tlers knew more about what God had intended than He did Himself. 
They plowed up His rich grass; planted trees where God Himself had 
never tried to raise them. They were brave, hardy, land-hungry peo- 
ple; they worked like dogs and put up with privations that would 
make you want to cry - they and their women. Half the land that 
you drove over coming out from Brule to this place today, now wav- 
ing in grass, was once broken, and if you could look under it you 
would find sweat, and tears, and dead hope. People used to go to 
church and get down on their knees to pray to God to change His plan 
and not a few of them cursed Him for not doing itl 

"You see, boy," the old man went on with deep earnestness, 
"God's ways are simple ones when you understand them, but hard and 
grievous when you don't - or won't. To make this a great stock 
country He gave it a good soil. To grow grass He sent plenty of 
rain in the spring and snow in the winter, and then to cure the 
grass He sent winds to dry things up and preserve them for the com- 
ing winter. Pretty soon now Nature will finish her growing for the 
year. The grass is green now, but in a few weeks you'll see it 
turning brown and dry. It will look dead, but if you peer into the 
clumps of buffalo grass, you'll see it cured green at the heart, to 
stay that way all winter under the snow. " 

"But if the land will grow such good hay, why won't it 
raise wheat also?" Randall could not help asking in spite of his 
promise. 

"Because grass and wheat are different," replied Mr. Voor- 
hees, hitching his chair closer and waving his pipe for added em- 
phasis. "One is native, the other exotic. When the grass is all 
cured and safe for the winter, wheat is just coming into the milk. 
The same weather that will cure the grass will shrivel the wheat. 
If there's a dry year the grass will be short, but unless there are 
years of absolute drought - and there have been - it will be there. 
Why, I've seen good years for grass when the wheat didn't head out; 
I've seen years when money was made with cattle and horses when the 
wheat didn't even come up!" 



37 



The old man stopped for a moment to emphasize the force of 
this impressive statement and then went on: 

"Usually, the critical time for wheat is right when it is 
driest, and winds that have gathered up all the loose heat between 
here and Mexico are apt to arrive on their way to Greenland's icy 
mountains to cool off. The only way to raise wheat in this country 
is to be lucky - lucky enough to get rains when they're not expected 
and that the hot winds will get cooled off before they hit - and 
you'd get a better break if you sat into a poker game, where you'd 
at least have some say after your chips are in ..." 

"You certainly paint a doleful picture," said Randall, who 
was finding the old man's logic depressing. 

"Doleful? Why dang it all, boy, I'm painting a hopeful 
picture; I'm telling you how to lick this country instead of letting 
it lick you!" 

And again Simon Voorhees passes on the lesson he himself 
had learned: 

"These lands here are what the sharps down at the Agricul- 
tural College call marginal lands - lands which have virtues maybe, 
but which ain't good enough for farming. The soil is good, but 
there's not enough rain. They're on the margin, as they say. It 
sure beats hell, with bread so cheap and meat so dear in the world, 
why people keep on breaking their hearts trying to raise bread on 
meat land." 



Steve Randall has luck with his first small crops of wheat. 
But there comes a year of late spring, just rain enough in May to 
hamper the delayed seeding, then weeks of drought so that the wheat 
and flax are blighted; then rain once more to start the grass grow- 
ing again - rain right into the beginning of winter. The grass has 
no chance to cure. Steve is forced to sell the steers he had count- 
ed on holding over another year. He invests the proceeds, next 
spring, in a gamble on flax in an attempt to make up for the re- 
verses of the previous year. But Marginal Land tells what hap- 
pened: 

There was no use in believing, or hoping, or even dread- 
ing any longer. There would be no flax. Day after day the bright 



38 



sun rode higher and higher, day after day its sinking rays wrought 
unbelievably beautiful magic on the piled clouds - clouds that of- 
fered lying promises, that even now and then let fall scattered 
raindrops and then fled, as though to mock the eager watchers - or 
were they tears for the tragedy that in a world of healing rain 
there was none for this suffering land? . . . 

There would be no flax; all his money, all his labor, all 
his hope, had gone for nothing. He had gambled and lost ... 

The plowing and planting of land in this country was no 
more an assurance of harvest, as he had driven himself to think, 
than the sinking of a shaft would be an assurance of gold. 

Out of failure springs wisdom. Steve Randall learns to 
look ahead, to seize upon the good years to put up winter feed for 
the lean ones. 

He understood something now he had not had the wit to see 
before - that drought is not a phenomenon of summer alone. The 
meager snows of the past winter had been the real beginning of the 
drought - a drought that had carried over until now and which gave 
no signs of ending. The soil was dry as powder, and unless there 
should be heavy snows in the coming winter or soaking rains in the 
spring, the hay crop would be short, if not entirely a failure. So 
it would be sound providence to harvest all possible of this year's 
bountiful yield, and as he saw load after load of dry, green hay 
roll into the great pile he felt that he was in some measure atoning 
for the improvidence of the past. 

And at the last, sitting on the porch waiting for the sup- 
per Trina is preparing, Steve Randall no longer sees the picture of 
a great field of wheat which once his ambition had painted. In- 
stead - 

Down in the great swale before him were many cattle, seem- 
ing to await the new grass of spring, and a little band of the work 
horses of the ranch stood in peace on the crest of the dam, awaiting 
their summons to the stable. 

His mind wandered aimlessly back through the years he had 
sat in this same place, to those who had been here with him, to the 
visions he had seen and the dreams he had dreamed here. All that 
had been sound and true of those old dreams had come into reality and 
endured - all the rest had gone. The sea of waving wheat down there 
in the gathering dusk had lost even the substance of a mirage, with 



39 



only the dead furrows, invisible now in the old last-yearns grass 
to show where it had once been. 

Soon the great swale would stand again in its lush green- 
ness, as it had been when he first sat here on the ruined porch be- 
fore the empty house. Only the grass was eternal, unchanging. The 
stone and steel of the city was fluid as water - only the grass, on 
the eternal hills about him, was enduring. 

This was the only real permanency, the only real security. 
The invincible and healing grass had covered all the old sorrows, 
all the old frustrations and defeats. Josephine, the wheat, the 
city - all were gone as though they had never been, leaving him 
free and in peace. 

******* 

ILLINOIS WOMEN'S CLUB ADVOCATES NATIONAL INDIAN DAY 



The Indian Office has received the following interesting 
letter from Geneva Henderson, Corresponding Secretary of the Woman's 
Club, University Church of Disciples, Chicago, Illinois: 

"Gentlemen: We, the Woman's Club of the University Church 
of Disciples (affiliated with The Illinois Federation Of Women's 
Clubs) wish to urge that a day be set aside to be known as National 
Indian Day." 



CORRECT SPELLING OF "NAVAJO" 

The spelling of Navajo has long been a subject for debate. 
Use of J is Spanish. Originally the word was "Navaju", a Tewa In- 
dian word meaning land of man y plantings . English spelling makes 
the J a hard consonant and hence tne proper spelling woul^ be "Nav- 
aho." By an act of the State Legislature, "Navajo" is proper in 
the State of Arizona. According to Funk and Wagnalls latest dic- 
tionary either "Navajo" or "Navaho" is correct. 

The United States Printing Office, in a style sheet on 
proper spelling settles the argument by the following decision: 
"Navajo" is correct when speaking of the land, &ach as Navajo coun- 
try or Navajo Indian Reservation. When referring to the people, 
"Navaho" Indians is the proper form. ( Reprinted from The Southwest 
Tourist News . ) 



40 



THE FLIGHT OF THE THUNDERBIRD 




Julius Twohy, Full-Blood Ute Indian, 
Painting Mural At Children's Refectory 
At Tacoma", Washington. 
(Photo Through Courtesy Federal Art 
Project, San Francisco) 



The bare 
walls of hundreds of 
p u blic buildin g s 
hospitals, s c h o o Is, 
courthouses, c o mm un- 
ity centers - have al- 
ready been decor a ted 
with murals painted by 
artists working on the 
Federal Art Project. A 
bare wall means a 
chance for some artist 
to show his talents. 

The walls of 
the big dining-room of 
the Indian hospital at 
Ta c om a, Washingto n, 
furnished a s p lendid 
opportunity for some 
artist - preferably an 
American Indian artist, 
thought two officials 
of the WPA Federal Art 
Project, Joseph Danysh, 
Regional Director and 
R. B. Inve rarity, State 
Director. 



A talented 
young Indian artist was 
found in Seattle - Jul- 
ius Twohy, a Ute Indian, 37 years old. He was born in the Uintah 
Basin, Utah, and lived with his own people until he was twenty. He 
stayed in Salt Lake City for a short time and then came to live in 
Seattle. 



He had had little opportunity for the formal study of art, 
but had worked for a while under the instruction of some artists in 
Seattle. At first he had turned away from Indian subjects, and had 
a period in which he attempted to draw like Howard Chandler Christy. 
The results were artistically disastrous and he turned back to the 



u 



themes and traditional art methods of his own people. In recover- 
ing his native art heritage he achieved distinction as an artist. 

Julius Twohy was commissioned to do the mural for the 
great 72-foot space on the dining-room wall of the Indian hospital. 
He selected for his theme "The Flight of the Thunderbird. " 

The thunderbird is a familiar and important figure in the 
myths of many of our Indian tribes. It appears both as a Guiding 
Father and as an Avenging Spirit. Twohy 1 s mural pictures its flight 
1'rom the Pacific Coast to the Great Lakes. It is shown feeding on 
whales in the Pacific, on antelope and bison on the Plains, and on 
moose and beaver in the Great Lakes region. It brings thunder and 
floods to disobedient tribes and rewards others with the blessings 
of plentiful game and many tepees. The traditional art motifs of 
different regions are used in depicting the different tribal scenes. 

"The interest that our Indians have shown in this fine 
mural has been remarkable," says Dr. Jesse H. Hendry, head of the 
hospital, which provides care for the Indians of the entire North- 
west region. "It is appropriate that they should be able to read 
in their ovm symbols one of their greatest legends." 



EXCERPT FROM 1938 ANNUAL EXTENSION REPORT 
By John Pop, Farm Agent 

In 1937, Martin Armous, a full-blood Arapaho, age 31, bar- 
tered twenty lambs for thirty old ewes. The ewes were kept on the 
farm all winter. In the spring they yielded a wool clip which 
brought $56 and a 100 per cent lamb crop. 

This fall, the fourteen wether lambs were sold for $66 and 
the sixteen ewe lambs were bartered for thirty-two good three and 
four year old ewes. Thus, in one year, from his original twenty 
lambs, Martin has realized more than $100 in cash and has thirty-two 
young ewes. At this rate he certainly is on the road to success. 



ia 



PROMINENT KIOWA INDIAN DIES 



George P o olaw, 
seventy-eight years old, 
died on March 19, 1939, at 
his home near Moun t ain 
View, Oklahoma. 

As a young man, 
Poolaw fought with his 
tribe against the Utes and 
Navajos in the Texas Pan- 
handle Area, and at the 
age of thirty, he was made 
a medicine man in his 
tribe. He attended t he 
Government school when it 
was first established at 
Anadarko. 

One of the most 
prominent men of the Kiowa 
Tribe, Poolaw was among 
the first group of Indians 
to enlist in the regular 
Army of the United States 
under the command of the 
late General Hugh L. Scott 
and served as sergeant in 
the all-Indian Se v enth 

United States Cavalry stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, from 1891 

to 1893. 




George Poolaw 



Since 1893, Poolaw has served at various times as a mem- 
ber of the Federal Government's Indian police at Anadarko, as spe- 
cial deputy sheriff of Kiowa County, and as advisor to members of 
the Kiowa and other tribes. 



Poolaw was historian for the Kiowa Indians for the past 
forty years and received correspondence and interviews from people 
throughout the United States who were interested in writing about 
the Indians. The history of the Kiowa Tribe, begun in 1833* was 
written in the Indian character language by him and is considered 
accurate by the United States Government. The book was a source of 
W. S. Nye's "Carbine and Lance", a story of the Plains country, and 



A3 



has been used to settle disputes among the Indians. With Poolaw's 
death, the history is to be turned over to the Historical Society, 
never to be read, as he was the last of the Kiowas whose ability it 
was to translate the character language. 

The final tribute paid Poolaw was the military funeral at 
the Rainy Mountain Indian Baptist Church. A squad from the Army 
post at Fort Sill fired a salute and a bugler played taps in the 
military services. 



RALPH L. WHITCOMB . INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEE. DISS 

It is with regret and a feeling of distinct loss to the 
Service that the Indian Office learns of the death, on March 18, of 
Ralph L. Vhitcomb, District Highway Engineer. Mr. Whitcomb died at 
Sebring, Florida, of influenza while on duty at the Seminole Agency. 
He was fifty-nine years of age. 

A native of Maine, Mr. Whitcomb completed his engineering 
education at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, New York. He 
had much experience in general engineering work, as supervisor of 
construction and as general engineer in charge of many large hospi- 
tals, factories, highway bridges and similar projects. 

Following his appointment to the Indian Service in 1933, 
Mr. Whitcomb served the Oklahoma-Kansas District with additional 
duties at Choctaw, Mississippi; Cherokee, North Carolina; and Sem- 
inole Agency, Florida. His experience and success soon secured for 
him the position of District Highway Engineer in charge of road 
work in Districts 1 and 9, in which capacity he was serving at the 
time of his death. 

From the first, Mr. Whitcomb had a keen interest in In- 
dians and in providing relief road work for the needy Indian groups 
in his district. Through his personal efforts, and under his direc- 
tion, many road and bridge projects throughout his districts were 
started and completed with efficiency and to the beneficial employ- 
ment of large numbers of Indians. His efficiency, loyalty and abil- 
ity to work harmoniously with Indians and whites alike, will be dif- 
ficult to replace. 



u 



DR. CHARLES A. EASTMAN . PROMINENT SIOUX . DIES 



Dr. Charles A. Eastman died in Detroit, Michigan, on Jan- 
uary 8, at the age of eighty. Dr. Eastman was the author of several 
books on Indian subjects and had attained distinction on the lecture 
platform. He was the winner in 1933, of the first Indian Achieve- 
ment Medal, awarded by the Indian Council Fire of Chicago, for In- 
dian achievement. 

Dr. Eastman was born in Redwood, Minnesota, and was about 
sixteen years old before coming into contact with the white people. 
Following his graduation from Dartmouth, he enrolled in the Medical 
School of Boston University, completing his course with honors and 
speaker of his class (M.D. 1890). He was immediately appointed as 
physician at the Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota, and was there dur- 
ing the Ghost Dance massacre, known as the Battle of Wounded Knee" 
and was head of the temporary hospital for the wounded Indian mili- 
tary prisoners. Shortly thereafter Dr. Eastman resigned from the 
government service and took up the practice of medicine in St. Paul. 
Appointed field secretary of the international committee of the 
Y.M.C.A. , he had charge of Indian work in the United States and Can- 
ada, and organized forty-two Indian Y.M.C.A. 's. 

Dr. Eastman first began to write in 1894. Several of his 
books have been translated into foreign languages, including French, 
German, Danish and Russian. Reentering the Indian Service, he was 
Inspector at Carlisle for a two-year period, and then returned to 
field work as physician at the Crow Creek Agency. In 1903 he was 
appointed by President Roosevelt to revise all the Sioux allotments 
and establish family names so that the descent of property in this 
tribe would be protected. This difficult work was carried on for 
nine years. During the same period he lectured extensively through- 
out the United States and abroad. In 1911 he was selected to repre- 
sent the North American Indian at the Universal Congress of Races 
held at the Imperial College, London. He was one of the two repre- 
sentatives asked to deliver his address to this Congress. Instru- 
mental in establishing the boy scouts, and also the camp fire girls, 
he helped in the organization work in Boston, New York City, Pitts- 
burgh and other cities. 

President Coolidge appointed him United States Indian In- 
spector (1923-25) and he was also a member of the Secretary of the 
Interior's Committee of One Hundred on Indian Affairs. Sent to 
England by the Brooks -Bright Foundation, of which he was a trustee 
(1927), he lectured before Oxford and Cambridge Universities, Eton 
College, Liverpool University and many other schools and organiza- 
tions. 



INDIAN AND WHITE POPULATION IN WESTERN UTAH TO HAVE 

A PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE 
By Dr. Ralph B. Snavely, District Medical Director, 

U. S. Indian Service 



45 




Arrange- 
ments have b een 
completed for 
a public 
health nurs- 
ing service to 
be established 
in the Goshute 
Area in West- 
ern Utah. The 
service will 
be financed by 
three agencies: 
Tooele County, 
the Utah State 
Board of Health 

and the U. S. Indian Service, each paying one-third of the total 

cost. 



Group Of Paiute Indian Women After A Health 
Meeting - Goshute Area, Western Utah. 



The Goshute Area lies in a remote mountainous region in 
the Western part of Utah, bordering on the State of Nevada. The 
population consists of 200 Indians on the Goshute Reservation and an 
undetermined number of whites engaged in ranching or mining, scat- 
tered over a wide area. The area is mountainous in the western part 
and extends into the great Salt Lake Desert which lies to the east. 
It is served by secondary roads and trails which are reasonably pas- 
sable in the summer months, but which are hazardous in we t weather 
and in the winter. 

Owing to the geographic isolation of this area, medical 
services have been very meager in the past. The nearest physician 
is about 100 miles from the center of the area, and the nearest hos- 
pital is at Ely, Nevada, also approximately 100 miles distant. The 
establishment of a public health nursing service in this area is an 
important event in that a health educational program may be inaugur- 
ated and precise information secured relative to the health needs of 
the Goshute Indians and of the other population groups. Plans are 
under study for a program of direct medical services to the Goshute 
Indians . 



46 



CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS — INDIAN DIVISION 
NOTES FROM WEEKLY PROGRESS REPORTS 



Work On The Campbell Creek 
Truck Trail At Hoopa Valley 
( California ) The work on the 
Campbell Creek Truck Trail has 
been at a standstill due to the 
number of slides that persist 
in blocking the road. T h ese 
slides prevent the laborers 
from getting to the f r o nt 
to clear the right of way. 

The rise in the Supply 
Creek broke over the temporary 
heading and heroic efforts were 
necessary to prevent it from 
washing parts of the recently 
constructed ditch away. Spe- 
cial mention is made of Edward 
E. Marshall, Jr., Amos Holmes, 
Ditch Foreman, and Ulysses Ef- 
fman, enrollee, who ass i sted 
Senior Foreman Maness in th r ow- 
ing in a temporary dam which 
stopped the flood. F r a nk G. 
Maness . 

The Mid-Winter Fair At Fort 
Totten ( North Dakota ) A Success . 
The mid-winter fair which *ta s 
held on the Fort Totten Reserva- 
tion recently, was well attended 
and enjoyed by all. The major 
exhibits were of the arts and 
crafts nature, and some home 
cooking exhibits were also pre- 
sented. Many of the arts and 
crafts exhibits were presented 
by the Adult Education partici- 
pants. The fair was planned 
and directed by an Indian fair 
committee. Christian A. Huber . 



A Distinguished Visi tor 
At Carson ( Nevada ^ At a gen- 
eral assembly held here re- 
cently, Dr. J. Grenville Price, 
Fellow of the Royal and Ameri- 
can Geo graphic Society, and 
well-known educator and explor- 
er from the Commonwealth of 
Australia, gave a very inter- 
esting talk on the land and 
people of his native land. Dr. 
Price is making a trip around 
the world, investigating the 
administration of native peo- 
ples t Willi am J oa quin , Jr . 

Good Weather En.j oyed At 
Consolidated Chippewa ( Minne- 
sota ) Spring has really ar- 
rived at this reservation. 
The cold of the past weeks has 
disappeared and Old Sol came 
out in all his glory. The 
snow then evaporated into thin 
air. The spring songbird most 
often heard at this time of 
the year - John Crow - has 
been seen very often, and his 
"song" has continually pervaded 
the atmosphere. Water is col- 
lecting in the creeks, th e 
roads are getting in a soft 
condition, and the snow in the 
denser wooded areas is reach- 
ing that state known as slush. 
Snows hoes are rapidly becoming 
of no use at all. Leo M. Smith 



Fence Being 
At Umatilla ( Oregon ) 
being started on 



Cons t ructed 



Work is 
the Wallowa 



Kl 



Project. A fence is to be con- 
structed around the cemetery 
where Chief Joseph is buried. 
The fence is to be built out of 
rocks which will be taken from 
around the neighborhood close 
by. Arthur Crowley, Lea der . 

Truck Operation Course Com- 
pleted By Three Enrollees At 
Flathead ( Montana ) With the 
completion of the truck opera- 
tion course, three enrollees 
have been issued drivers per- 
mits. Within the next month, 
these three men will have also 
completed their first-aid train- 
ing, which will bring all truck 
drivers of the Valley C r eek 
Camp up to the standard regula- 
tion requirements. Eugene Mail - 
let . 

Native Elm Tree Dedicated 
1°. Chief At Osage ( Oklahoma ) In 
connection w i th the enrollee 
program, the CCC-LD planted a 
native Elm tree near the Osage 
Museum and dedicated it to Chief 
Fred Lookout, Chief of the 
Osages. Chief Lookout put the 
first shovel of dirt on the 
tree. He later spoke to the 
enrollees and praised the work 
which was being done by the 
CCC-ID. The talk was then in- 
terpreted by Harry Kohpay, as 
Chief Lookout spoke in Osage. 
James Lawyer. A pp ra iser in 
Charge of CCC-ID . 

Fine Telephone Work Being 
Done At Mescalero ( New Mexico ) 



The telephone crew established 
a new record when they tore 
down 120 telephone poles, 
rolled up the wire, took off 
brackets, loaded the poles on 
trucks, and hauled everything 
back to the Agency all in one 
day. They were working at a 
distance of 130 miles from the 
Agency. The telephone crew is 
to be highly commended for 
their work, and for establish- 
ing a record that any group 
doing this type of work, with- 
in or outside the CCC-ID should 
be very proud of. James M. 
Cox . 

Spring Planting Begun At 
Chilocco School ( Oklahoma ) 
Several acres of range have 
been prepared for spring plant- 
ing. Some of the land has 
been plowed and some has been 
double disced. 

A variety of seed will be 
sowed and the sloped land will 
be sodded with Bermuda Roots. 
A good stand of Bermuda grass 
is one of the best soil-savers 
where the soil has a tendency 
to wash. Achan Pappan , Assist- 
ant . 

Work At Yakima ( Washing - 
ton ) With spring weather here, 
the crew has made progress. 
One crew has been cutting and 
preparing logs for the "por- 
tals." The first of these 
"portals" is being constructed 
here at the east entrance of 



U8 



Fort Simcoe. Thus far, the 
crew has erected the four pil- 
lars of the gate and have laid 
two cross-beams which parallel 
the road. These logs are from 
one to five feet in diameter 
and all of them pass the ten- 
foot mark in length - s ome 
reach fifteen feet or m o re. 
The purpose of these "portals" 
will be to serve as gates, and 
at the same time, give various 
places on the reservation the 
touch and characteristics that 
have been lost in years gone by. 

Recreation Hall At Red Lake 
( Minnesota ) Moved. The moving 
of the recreation hall from old 
Camp #U to Red Lake was quite 
a task. A day and night crew 
was kept busy for 2£ hours. Af- 
ter starting out with skids from 
Gamp #4, the crew encountered 
some difficulty due to b a re 
spots in the road which made it 
hard to pull the build ings . 

The building was jacked up 
and wheels were put under the 
building, which made it much 
easier to move. The 70 "Cats" 
progressed very well after this 
was done. Samuel Frisby , Proj- 
ect Manager . 

Reservoir Site Located For 



Alligator Creek At Crow (Mon tana) 
We recently finished the topo- 
graphical survey of the proposed 
site on Alligator Creek. The 
site appears to be a very feas- 
ible one. This location was 



selected because it would be 
very advantageous to the stock- 
men who would use it. Tony 
Mauro . Trail Locator . 

Vocational Ins t ru ction 
At Salem School ( Oregon !) In 
connection with vocational in- 
struction, we recently had a 
discussion on the following: 
different kinds of timber found 
along the Pacific Coast; the 
various grades of lumber made 
from Pacific Coast timber; and 
the uses of Western woods. The 
discussion also included sub- 
jects such as: defects in 
lumber caused by weather, 
growth, mistakes in sawing at 
the mill; grades and sizes of 
lumber; the difference between 
common and select grades of 
lumber; and grading and dress- 
ing rules. James L. Shawver . 
Dairyman . 

Trail Maintenance At Col - 
vil i~e ( Washington ) Much at- 
tention has been given t o 
trail maintenance in the Co- 
vada and Inchelium Districts 
recently. The snow has been 
taken off very rapidly an d 
this has caused quite a bit 
of water to run on the trails. 
The enrollees from camp have 
helped greatly in keeping the 
road open by filling wash-outs, 
graveling mud-holes, and drain- 
ing water from many low spots 
on approximately sixty miles 
of trail. Ray Taulou, Camp 
Manager . 



WHERE ARE THE INDIANS NOW ? 

Floods Of Inquiries On All Indian Subjects Pour Into 

Washington But Most Persons Want To Know Where Present-Day 

Indians Are Living 

By Floyd W. LaRouche 

Of all the varied and increasing requests for information 
received by the Indian Office, probably no inquiry is more common 
or more persistent that the desire to know the exact location of In- 
dian tribes and bands. And to satisfy this demand, which comes from 
our own people as well as from schools, clubs, members of Congress, 
newspapers and magazines and many other groups and individuals, we 
decided some months ago to prepare an authentic map of the United 
States and Alaska. The map is now printed for the first time on the 
back cover of this issue of "Indians At Work." 

This map represents intensive effort covering many months, 
plus painstaking map drawing skill. The actual drawing was done by 
Sam Attahvich, Comanche Indian employee of the Washington Office 
without whose patience and persistence the work would not have been 
done nearly so well. 

It seems a fairly simple thing to determine the exact lo- 
cation of the Indian tribes, bands, settlements and rancherias in 
the United States. That was what we thought when we began. 

But the longer we worked the better we understood why no 
such map had been drawn in recent years. With the best intentions 
in the world the various sources of information to which one natur- 
ally turns for such data, gave facts and figures and locations which 
conflicted with data obtained elsewhere. Sometimes recorded infor- 
mation was out of date, and because of shifts of population, land 
buying under the Indian Reorganization Act, establishment of new 
colonies and for various other reasons, was no longer in line with 
the facts. 

All this is merely one way of leading up to the admission 
that the current version of the map printed herewith, is not by any 
means a final one. Information is still coming in, and as long as 
it proves to be valuable and factual, the map will be considered un- 
finished. In fact, the chances are it will remain an unfinished 
job as long as Indian life remains a dynamic and changing force. 
And that ought to be for a very long time. 



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